- What is the difference between deterministic and stochastic effects?
- What is the most common form of a stochastic effect?
- What does acute radiation syndrome do?
- What is stochastic effect?
- What is somatic effect?
- What tissues are most sensitive to radiation?
- What is non stochastic effect of radiation?
- What is non stochastic?
- How much whole body radiation does it take to cause a short term deterministic effect on a person?
- What is the main source of natural background radiation?
- Which of the following are examples of stochastic effects?
- What does stochastic mean?
- What is the Alara principle?
- What does stochastic mean in dentistry?
- What is the difference between a non stochastic effect and a stochastic effect?

## What is the difference between deterministic and stochastic effects?

Deterministic effects describe a cause and effect relationship between ionizing radiation and certain side-effects.

They are also known as non-stochastic effects to contrast them with chance-like stochastic effects (e.g.

cancer induction)..

## What is the most common form of a stochastic effect?

Effects that occur by chance and which may occur without a threshold level of dose, whose probability is proportional to the dose and whose severity is independent of the dose. In the context of radiation protection, the main stochastic effect is cancer.

## What does acute radiation syndrome do?

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects due to exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. Symptoms can begin within an hour and may last for several months.

## What is stochastic effect?

Stochastic effect is those effect which occur when a person. receives a high dose of radiation. These effects have an increase probability of occurrence with increase dose. There is no threshold dose below which is creatively certain that a stochastic effect cannot occur.

## What is somatic effect?

Effects of radiation limited to the exposed individual, as distinguished from genetic effects, that may also affect subsequent unexposed generations.

## What tissues are most sensitive to radiation?

Amongst the body cells, the most sensitive are spermatogonia and erythroblasts, epidermal stem cells, gastrointestinal stem cells. The least sensitive are nerve cells and muscle fibers. Very sensitive cells are also oocytes and lymphocytes, although they are resting cells and do not meet the criteria described above.

## What is non stochastic effect of radiation?

Nonstochastic effects generally result from the receipt of a relatively high dose over a short time period. Skin erythema (reddening) and radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect. This term has been replaced with Deterministic Effect.

## What is non stochastic?

A non-random (deterministic, non-stochastic variable) is one whose value is known ahead of time or one whose past value is known. EX: Tomorrow’s date, yesterday’s temperature.

## How much whole body radiation does it take to cause a short term deterministic effect on a person?

Immediate and reproductible effects: On the whole body level (the effective dose), this threshold has been estimated at 500 mSv. On a more localised level, say the testicles, an equivalent dose of 2 mSv can lead to temporary sterility and 6 mSv can make it permanent.

## What is the main source of natural background radiation?

Natural sources of background radiation include: cosmic rays – radiation that reaches the Earth from space. rocks and soil – some rocks are radioactive and give off radioactive radon gas. living things – plants absorb radioactive materials from the soil and these pass up the food chain.

## Which of the following are examples of stochastic effects?

Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects. As dose increases, the probability of cancer increases linearly.

## What does stochastic mean?

Stochastic refers to a randomly determined process. … The term stochastic is used in many different fields, particularly where stochastic or random processes are used to represent systems or phenomena that seem to change in a random way.

## What is the Alara principle?

ALARA stands for “as low as reasonably achievable”. This principle means that even if it is a small dose, if receiving that dose has no direct benefit, you should try to avoid it. To do this, you can use three basic protective measures in radiation safety: time, distance, and shielding.

## What does stochastic mean in dentistry?

Stochastic effects include the development of cancer – a known potential outcome of exposure to ionising radiation. Increasing exposure is believed to be associated with increasing risk, and therefore there is no unequivocally safe maximum dose. … Table 1 shows typical dose from common dental exposures.

## What is the difference between a non stochastic effect and a stochastic effect?

Stochastic effects have been defined as those for which the probability increases with dose, without a threshold. Nonstochastic effects are those for which incidence and severity depends on dose, but for which there is a threshold dose. These definitions suggest that the two types of effects are not related.